Karl Bodmer - Horse Racing of the Sioux - circa 1836
The Sioux (pron.: /ˈsuː/) are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation’s many language dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on Siouan dialect and subculture: Isáŋyathi or Isáŋathi (“Knife,” originating from the name of a lake in present-day Minnesota). Residing in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa, and are often referred to as the Santee or Eastern Dakota; Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna (“Village-at-the-end” and “little village-at-the-end”). Residing in the Minnesota River area, they are considered to be the middle Sioux, and are often referred to as the Yankton and the Yanktonai, or, collectively, as the Wičhíyena (endonym) or the Western Dakota (and have been erroneously classified as “Nakota”). Thítȟuŋwaŋ or Teton (uncertain, perhaps “Dwellers on the Prairie”; this name is archaic among the natives, who prefer to call themselves Lakȟóta). The westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture, are often referred to as the Lakota.
Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.
Karl Bodmer - Bison Dance of the Mandan Indians (1842)
The Mandan are a Native American people living in North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the rest reside around the United States and in Canada.
The Mandan historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers—in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, the people developed a settled culture in contrast to that of more nomadic tribes in the Great Plains region. They established permanent villages featuring large, round, earth lodges some 40 feet (12 m) in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. While the bison was key to the daily life of the Mandan, it was supplemented by agriculture and trade.
Pehriska Ruppa / Karl Bodmer
Pehriska-Ruhpa of the Dog Society of the Hidatsa tribe of Native Americans.
The Hidatsa (called Minnetaree by their allies, the Mandan; Assiniboine: wakmúhaza yúde, ȟewáktųkta are a Siouan people, a part of the Three Affiliated Tribes. The Hidatsa’s autonym is Hiraacá. According to the tribal tradition, the word hiraacá derives from the word “willow”; however, the etymology is not transparent and the similarity to mirahací ‘willows’ inconclusive. The present name Hidatsa was formerly borne by one of the three tribal villages. When the villages consolidated, the name was adopted for the tribe as a whole. Their language is related to that of the Crow, and they are sometimes considered a parent tribe to the modern Crow in Montana. Occasionally they have also been confused with the Gros Ventres in Montana.
Accounts of recorded history in the early 18th century identify three closely related village groups to which the term Hidatsa is applied. What is now known as the Hidatsa tribe is the amalgamation of these three groups: the Hidatsa proper, the Awatixa, and the Awaxawi (or Amahami) (Bowers 1965). These groups had discrete histories and spoke different dialects; they came together only after settling on the Missouri River.
The Amahami have a creation tradition similar to that of the Mandan, which describes their emergence long ago from the Earth, at Devil’s Lake. Later they moved westward to the Painted Woods (near Square Buttes) and settled near a village of Mandan and another of Awatixa.